Human Robot Interaction (HRI)

The fundamental idea behind Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is to eliminate human weaknesses by compensating them with a robots strengths (Bortot, 2014). The scope of the Human-Robot Interaction Group (HRI Group) is defined by a taxonomy for HRI provided by Schmidtler, Knott, Hölzel, & Bengler (2015). They define HRI as an umbrella term with three intertwining subcategories. Based on a common workspace and timeframe (Human-Robot Coexistence) between human and robot, the terminology is nowadays extended by the additional components common goal (Human-Robot Cooperation) and direct joint action (Human-Robot Collaboration) via gesture, speech or haptic interaction.

Topics including, but not limited to, implicit motion behavior and communication (Bortot et al., 2010; Bortot, Born, & Bengler, 2013; Bortot, Ding, Antonopolous, & Bengler, 2012; Reinhardt, Pereira, Beckert, & Bengler, 2017; Reinhardt, Schmidtler, Körber, & Bengler, 2016), physical human augmentation (Schmidtler & Bengler, 2016; Schmidtler, Bengler, Dimeas, & Campeau-Lecours, 2017; Schmidtler, Harbauer, & Bengler, 2014; Schmidtler, Korber, & Bengler, 2016), and intuitive programming paradigms (Herbst, 2015; Herbst, Rühl, Hermann, Xue, & Bengler, 2013) are currently investigated from an Human Factors perspective. Attitudes and states like trust, acceptance, well-being, and comfort are manipulated and analyzed in terms of legibility, predictability, and usability in hypothesis-driven empirical quantitative and qualitative user studies.


Bortot, D. (2014). Ergonomic Human-Robot Coexistence in the Branch of Production. Technical Universtity Munich.

Bortot, D., Born, M., & Bengler, K. (2013). Directly or on detours? How should industrial robots approximate humans? In ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (Vol. 55, pp. 89–90).

Bortot, D., Ding, H., Antonopolous, A., & Bengler, K. (2012). Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot. Work, 41(SUPPL.1), 1699–1707.

Bortot, D., Ding, H., Giinzkofer, F., Stengel, D., Bengler, K., Schiller, F., & Stursherg, O. (2010). Motion analysis and motion modeling to increase efficiency of robothuman cooperation. Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 64(2), 65–75. Retrieved from

Herbst, U. (2015). Gestaltung eines ergonomischen Interaktionskonzeptes für flexibel einsetzbare und transportable Roboterzellen. Technical University of Munich. Retrieved from

Herbst, U., Rühl, S., Hermann, A., Xue, Z., & Bengler, K. (2013). Ergonomic 6D interaction technologies for a flexible and transportable robot system: A comparison. IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 12(PART 1), 58–63.

Reinhardt, J., Pereira, A., Beckert, D., & Bengler, K. (2017). Dominance and Movement Cues of Robot Motion: A User Study on Trust and Predictability. In (accepted) IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 2017.

Reinhardt, J., Schmidtler, J., Körber, M., & Bengler, K. (2016). Follow Me! Wie Roboter Menschen führen sollen. Zeitschrift Für Arbeitswissenschaft.

Schmidtler, J., & Bengler, K. (2016). Size-weight illusion in human-robot collaboration. In 2016 25th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) (pp. 874–879). IEEE.

Schmidtler, J., Bengler, K., Dimeas, F., & Campeau-Lecours, A. (2017). A Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Physical Assistive Devices (QUEAD) - Testing Usability and Acceptance in Human-Robot Interaction. In accepted at 2017 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetivs.

Schmidtler, J., Harbauer, C., & Bengler, K. (2014). Investigation of Human Behaviour in Pushing and Pulling Tasks for Direct Manipulation of a Collaborative Robot. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter.

Schmidtler, J., Knott, V., Hölzel, C., & Bengler, K. (2015). Human Centered Assistance Applications for the working environment of the future. Occupational Ergonomics, 12(3), 83–95.

Schmidtler, J., Korber, M., & Bengler, K. (2016). A trouble shared is a trouble halved — Usability measures for Human-Robot Collaboration. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 000217–000222). IEEE.